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List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

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Countries by GDP (PPP) per capita (Int$) in 2018 according to the IMF
  > 50,000
  35,000–50,000
  20,000–35,000
  10,000–20,000
  5,000–10,000
  2,000–5,000
  < 2,000
  No data

This page is a list of the countries of the world by gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.

As of 2017, the average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world is US$17,300.[1] For rankings regarding wealth, see list of countries by wealth per adult.

Method

The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution.

Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made on the basis of nominal GDP and savings (not just income), which do not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (see List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita); hence, using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing generalized differences in living standards between nations because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using only exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income. This is why GDP (PPP) per capita is often considered one of the indicators of a country's standard of living,[2][3] although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. (See Standard of living and GDP.)

Note that the Irish GDP data below is subject to material distortion by the tax planning activities of foreign multinationals in Ireland. 2015 Irish GDP was over 150% of 2015 Irish gross national income (GNI). To address this, in 2017 the Central Bank of Ireland created "modified GNI" (or GNI*) as a more appropriate statistic, and the OECD and IMF have adopted it for Ireland. 2015 Irish GDP is 143% of 2015 Irish GNI*.

Lists of countries and dependencies

All figures are in current Geary–Khamis dollars (also known as international dollars), and rounded up or down to the nearest whole number.

Several economies that are not considered to be sovereign states (such as various dependent territories) are included because they appear in the sources. These non-sovereign entities, former countries and other special groupings are in italics. They are listed in dollar order, but are not given a numerical rank.

International Monetary Fund (2018)[4] World Bank (2017)[5][6] Central Intelligence Agency (1993–2017)[7]
Rank Country/Territory Int$
1  Qatar 130,475
 Macau 116,808
2  Luxembourg 106,705
3  Singapore 100,345
4  Brunei 79,530
5  Ireland 78,785
6  Norway 74,356
7  United Arab Emirates 69,382
8  Kuwait 67,000
9   Switzerland 64,649
 Hong Kong 64,216
10  United States 62,606
11  San Marino 60,313
12  Netherlands 56,383
13  Saudi Arabia 55,944
14  Iceland 55,917
 Taiwan 53,023
15  Sweden 52,984
16  Germany 52,559
17  Australia 52,373
18  Austria 52,137
19  Denmark 52,121
20  Bahrain 50,057
21  Canada 49,651
22  Belgium 48,245
23  Oman 46,584
24  Finland 46,430
25  France 45,775
26  United Kingdom 45,705
27  Malta 45,606
28  Japan 44,227
29  Korea, South 41,351
30  Spain 40,139
31  New Zealand 40,135
32  Cyprus 39,973
 Puerto Rico 39,737
33  Italy 39,637
34  Israel 37,972
35  Czech Republic 37,371
36  Slovenia 36,746
37  Slovakia 35,130
38  Lithuania 34,826
39  Estonia 34,096
40  Bahamas, The 33,494
41  Trinidad and Tobago 32,254
42  Portugal 32,006
43  Poland 31,939
44  Hungary 31,903
45  Malaysia 30,860
46  Seychelles 30,505
47  Latvia 29,901
48  Saint Kitts and Nevis 29,820
49  Russia 29,267
50  Greece 29,123
51  Antigua and Barbuda 27,981
52  Turkey 27,956
53  Kazakhstan 27,550
54  Romania 26,447
55  Croatia 26,221
56  Chile 25,978
57  Panama 25,674
58  Mauritius 23,699
59  Uruguay 23,274
60  Bulgaria 23,156
61  Equatorial Guinea 22,710
62  Maldives 21,760
63  Mexico 20,602
64  Argentina 20,537
65  Belarus 20,003
66  Iran 19,557
67  Turkmenistan 19,527
68  Thailand 19,476
69  Montenegro 19,043
70  Barbados 18,534
71  Gabon 18,496
72  Dominican Republic 18,424
73  China 18,110
74  Azerbaijan 18,076
75  Botswana 17,965
76  Iraq 17,659
77  Costa Rica 17,559
78  Serbia 17,555
 World[n 1] 16,779
79  Grenada 16,167
80  Brazil 16,154
81  North Macedonia 15,709
82  Algeria 15,440
83  Suriname 15,105
84  Palau 14,952
85  Colombia 14,943
86  Lebanon 14,684
87  Saint Lucia 14,355
88  Peru 14,224
89  South Africa 13,675
90  Bosnia and Herzegovina 13,491
91  Mongolia 13,447
92  Sri Lanka 13,397
93  Paraguay 13,395
94  Egypt 13,366
95  Albania 13,345
96  Indonesia 13,230
97  Tunisia 12,372
98  Nauru 12,326
99  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11,956
100  Ecuador 11,718
 Kosovo 11,552
101  Georgia 11,485
102  Libya 11,469
103  Namibia 11,229
104  Eswatini 11,020
105  Fiji 10,234
106  Armenia 10,176
107  Dominica 9,886
108  Bhutan 9,540
109  Jamaica 9,447
110  Jordan 9,433
111  Ukraine 9,283
112  Philippines 8,936
113  Morocco 8,933
114  Guyana 8,519
115  Belize 8,501
116  Guatemala 8,436
117  El Salvador 8,041
118  Laos 7,925
119  India 7,874
120  Uzbekistan 7,665
121  Vietnam 7,510
122  Bolivia 7,477
123  Cape Verde 7,316
124  Moldova 7,305
125  Angola 6,814
126  Congo, Republic of the 6,799
127  Myanmar 6,511
128  Ghana 6,452
129  Tonga 6,111
130  Nigeria 6,027
131  Samoa 5,890
132  Nicaragua 5,683
133  Pakistan 5,680
134  Timor-Leste 5,242
135  Honduras 5,212
136  Bangladesh 4,620
137  Cambodia 4,335
138  Sudan 4,232
139  Côte d'Ivoire 4,178
140  Zambia 4,104
141  Tuvalu 4,052
142  Mauritania 3,990
143  Kyrgyzstan 3,844
144  Cameroon 3,828
145  Djibouti 3,786
146  Marshall Islands 3,697
147  Kenya 3,691
148  Papua New Guinea 3,662
149  Senegal 3,651
150  Micronesia, Federated States of 3,482
151  Tanzania 3,444
152  Tajikistan 3,416
153  Lesotho 3,494
154  São Tomé and Príncipe 3,324
155    Nepal 2,905
156  Vanuatu 2,862
157  Gambia, The 2,792
158  Zimbabwe 2,788
159  Uganda 2,498
160  Benin 2,426
161  Chad 2,415
162  Mali 2,384
163  Yemen 2,377
164  Ethiopia 2,332
165  Guinea 2,310
166  Rwanda 2,280
167  Solomon Islands 2,242
168  Kiribati 2,086
169  Afghanistan 2,017
170  Burkina Faso 1,996
171  Guinea-Bissau 1,937
172  Haiti 1,864
173  Togo 1,746
174  Eritrea 1,657
175  Comoros 1,632
176  Madagascar 1,630
177  Sierra Leone 1,620
178  South Sudan 1,502
179  Liberia 1,418
180  Mozambique 1,291
181  Niger 1,217
182  Malawi 1,199
183  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 767
184  Burundi 732
185  Central African Republic 712
 Syria n/a
 Venezuela n/a
Rank Country/Territory Int$
1  Qatar 128,378
 Macau 115,123
2  Luxembourg 103,662
3  Singapore 93,905
4  Brunei 78,836
5  Ireland 76,305
6  United Arab Emirates 73,879
7  Kuwait 71,943
8   Switzerland 65,006
9  San Marino 62,425
 Hong Kong 61,540
10  Norway 60,978
11  United States 59,532
12  Saudi Arabia 53,845
13  Iceland 53,518
14  Netherlands 52,941
15  Austria 52,558
16  Germany 50,715
17  Denmark 50,541
18  Sweden 50,070
19  Belgium 47,561
20  Bahrain 47,527
21  Australia 47,047
22  Canada 46,378
23  Finland 45,192
24  United Kingdom 43,877
25  Japan 43,876
26  France 42,779
27  Oman 41,675
 European Union 41,091
28  New Zealand 40,917
29  Italy 39,817
30  Malta 39,534
31  Korea, South 38,335
32  Israel 38,267
33  Spain 38,091
34  Czech Republic 36,916
35  Slovenia 34,802
36  Cyprus 34,504
37  Portugal 32,199
38  Slovakia 32,111
39  Lithuania 32,093
40  Estonia 31,638
41  Trinidad and Tobago 31,578
42  Bahamas, The 30,430
43  Malaysia 29,432
44  Poland 29,291
45  Seychelles 28,964
46  Hungary 28,375
47  Turkey 27,916
48  Greece 27,809
49  Latvia 27,598
50  Saint Kitts and Nevis 27,067
51  Kazakhstan 26,410
52  Romania 25,841
53  Russia 25,533
54  Croatia 25,264
55  Equatorial Guinea 24,817
56  Panama 24,446
57  Chile 24,085
58  Antigua and Barbuda 23,594
59  Uruguay 22,563
60  Mauritius 22,279
61  Iran 20,950
62  Argentina 20,787
63  Bulgaria 20,329
64  Libya 19,631
65  Belarus 18,848
66  Montenegro 18,765
67  Barbados 18,640
68  Gabon 18,183
69  Mexico 18,149
70  Turkmenistan 17,993
71  Thailand 17,871
72  Azerbaijan 17,398
73  Botswana 17,354
74  Iraq 17,197
75  Costa Rica 17,044
 World 16,961
76  China 16,807
77  Maldives 16,669
78  Dominican Republic 16,030
79  Brazil 15,484
80  Algeria 15,275
81  North Macedonia 15,231
82  Suriname 15,114
83  Serbia 15,090
84  Grenada 14,924
85  Lebanon 14,676
86  Colombia 14,552
87  Palau 14,536
88  Saint Lucia 14,219
89  Nauru 14,158
90  South Africa 13,498
91  Peru 13,434
92  Mongolia 13,000
93  Bosnia and Herzegovina 12,876
94  Sri Lanka 12,811
95  Indonesia 12,284
96  Albania 12,021
97  Tunisia 11,911
98  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11,777
99  Ecuador 11,617
100  Egypt 11,583
 Kosovo 10,754
101  Georgia 10,699
102  Dominica 10,620
103  Namibia 10,476
104  Paraguay 9,691
105  Armenia 9,648
106  Bhutan 9,561
107  Fiji 9,555
108  Jordan 9,153
109  Jamaica 8,995
110  Ukraine 8,667
111  Belize 8,590
112  Eswatini 8,496
113  Philippines 8,342
114  Morocco 8,218
115  Guyana 8,163
116  Guatemala 8,150
117  El Salvador 8,006
118  Bolivia 7,560
119  Timor-Leste 7,213
120  India 7,056
121  Laos 7,023
122  Uzbekistan 6,865
123  Cape Verde 6,832
124  Vietnam 6,775
125  Samoa 6,611
126  Angola 6,389
127  Myanmar 6,139
128  Tonga 5,957
129  Nigeria 5,861
130  Nicaragua 5,842
131  Moldova 5,698
132  Pakistan 5,527
133  Congo, Republic of the 5,359
134  Honduras 4,986
135  Sudan 4,904
 West Bank and Gaza 4,885
136  Ghana 4,641
137  Papua New Guinea 4,197
138  Marshall Islands 4,192
139  Zambia 4,050
140  Cambodia 4,002
141  Côte d'Ivoire 3,953
142  Mauritania 3,950
143  Tuvalu 3,925
144  Bangladesh 3,869
145  Kyrgyzstan 3,726
146  Cameroon 3,694
147  Micronesia, Federated States of 3,622
148  São Tomé and Príncipe 3,351
149  Kenya 3,286
150  Vanuatu 3,208
151  Tajikistan 3,180
152  Lesotho 3,130
153  Tanzania 2,946
154  Senegal 2,712
155    Nepal 2,682
156  Solomon Islands 2,422
157  Guinea 2,285
158  Benin 2,266
159  Mali 2,211
160  Kiribati 2,175
161  Zimbabwe 2,086
162  Rwanda 2,036
163  Afghanistan 1,981
164  Chad 1,941
165  Ethiopia 1,899
166  Burkina Faso 1,870
167  Uganda 1,864
168  Haiti 1,815
169  Gambia, The 1,715
170  Guinea-Bissau 1,700
171  Togo 1,570
172  Madagascar 1,555
173  Comoros 1,552
174  Sierra Leone 1,526
175  Mozambique 1,247
176  Malawi 1,202
177  Niger 1,017
178  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 887
179  Liberia 827
180  Burundi 771
181  Central African Republic 726
Rank Country/Territory Int$ Year
1  Liechtenstein 139,100 2009 est.
2  Qatar 124,900 2017 est.
3  Monaco 115,700 2015 est.
 Macau 114,400 2017 est.
4  Luxembourg 109,100 2017 est.
 Falkland Islands 96,200 2012 est.
5  Singapore 90,500 2017 est.
 Bermuda 85,700 2013 est.
 Isle of Man 84,600 2014 est.
6  Brunei 76,700 2017 est.
7  Ireland 72,600 2017 est.
8  Norway 70,600 2017 est.
9  Kuwait 69,700 2017 est.
10  United Arab Emirates 68,200 2017 est.
 Sint Maarten 66,800 2014 est.
 Gibraltar 61,700 2014 est.
11   Switzerland 61,400 2017 est.
 Hong Kong 61,000 2017 est.
12  San Marino 59,500 2017 est.
13  United States 59,500 2017 est.
14  Saudi Arabia 55,300 2017 est.
15  Netherlands 53,600 2017 est.
 Guernsey 52,500 2014 est.
16  Iceland 52,100 2017 est.
17  Bahrain 51,800 2017 est.
18  Sweden 51,300 2017 est.
19  Germany 50,200 2017 est.
20  Australia 49,900 2017 est.
21  Andorra 49,900 2015 est.
 Taiwan 49,800 2017 est.
22  Denmark 49,600 2017 est.
 Jersey 49,500 2015 est.
23  Austria 49,200 2017 est.
24  Canada 48,100 2017 est.
25  Belgium 46,300 2017 est.
26  Oman 45,500 2017 est.
27  Finland 44,000 2017 est.
 Cayman Islands 43,800 2004 est.
28  France 43,600 2017 est.
29  United Kingdom 43,600 2017 est.
30  Japan 42,700 2017 est.
31  Malta 42,500 2017 est.
 British Virgin Islands 42,300 2010 est.
 European Union 40,900 2017 est.
 Faroe Islands 40,000 2014 est.
32  Korea, South 39,400 2017 est.
33  New Zealand 38,900 2017 est.
34  Spain 38,300 2017 est.
35  Italy 38,100 2017 est.
 Greenland 37,600 2015 est.
 Puerto Rico 37,300 2017 est.
36  Cyprus 36,600 2017 est.
37  Israel 36,200 2017 est.
 U.S. Virgin Islands 36,100 2013 est.
38  Czech Republic 35,200 2017 est.
39  Equatorial Guinea 34,900 2017 est.
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 34,900 2006 est.
40  Slovenia 34,100 2017 est.
41  Slovakia 32,900 2017 est.
42  Lithuania 31,900 2017 est.
43  Estonia 31,500 2017 est.
44  Trinidad and Tobago 31,200 2017 est.
 New Caledonia 31,100 2015 est.
 Guam 30,500 2013 est.
45  Portugal 30,300 2017 est.
46  Poland 29,300 2017 est.
 Turks and Caicos Islands 29,100 2007 est.
47  Seychelles 28,900 2017 est.
48  Hungary 28,900 2017 est.
49  Malaysia 28,900 2017 est.
50  Russia 27,900 2017 est.
51  Greece 27,800 2017 est.
52  Latvia 27,300 2017 est.
53  Saint Kitts and Nevis 26,800 2017 est.
54  Turkey 26,500 2017 est.
55  Antigua and Barbuda 26,300 2017 est.
56  Kazakhstan 26,100 2017 est.
 Aruba 25,300 2011 est.
57  Bahamas, The 25,100 2017 est.
58  Chile 24,600 2017 est.
59  Panama 24,300 2017 est.
60  Croatia 24,100 2017 est.
61  Romania 24,000 2017 est.
62  Uruguay 22,400 2017 est.
63  Bulgaria 21,600 2017 est.
64  Mauritius 21,600 2017 est.
65  Argentina 20,700 2017 est.
66  Iran 20,000 2017 est.
67  Mexico 19,500 2017 est.
68  Lebanon 19,500 2017 est.
69  Gabon 19,300 2017 est.
 Saint Martin 19,300 2005 est.
70  Maldives 19,200 2017 est.
71  Turkmenistan 18,700 2017 est.
72  Belarus 18,600 2017 est.
73  Botswana 18,100 2017 est.
74  Thailand 17,800 2017 est.
75  Barbados 17,500 2017 est.
76  Azerbaijan 17,400 2017 est.
77  Montenegro 17,400 2017 est.
78  Costa Rica 17,200 2017 est.
79  Iraq 17,000 2017 est.
 French Polynesia 17,000 2015 est.
80  Dominican Republic 17,000 2017 est.
81  Palau 16,700 2017 est.
82  China 16,600 2017 est.
83  Brazil 15,500 2017 est.
84  Serbia 15,200 2017 est.
85  North Macedonia 15,200 2017 est.
86  Algeria 15,100 2017 est.
 Curaçao 15,000 2004 est.
87  Grenada 14,700 2017 est.
88  Colombia 14,500 2017 est.
89  Suriname 13,900 2017 est.
90  Saint Lucia 13,500 2017 est.
91  South Africa 13,400 2017 est.
 Northern Mariana Islands 13,300 2013 est.
92  Peru 13,300 2017 est.
93  Egypt 13,000 2017 est.
 American Samoa 13,000 2013 est.
94  Sri Lanka 13,000 2017 est.
95  Mongolia 12,600 2017 est.
96  Jordan 12,500 2017 est.
97  Albania 12,500 2017 est.
98  Indonesia 12,400 2017 est.
99  Venezuela 12,400 2017 est.
 Cook Islands 12,300 2010 est.
100  Nauru 12,200 2017 est.
 Anguilla 12,200 2008 est.
101  Dominica 12,000 2017 est.
102  Tunisia 12,000 2017 est.
103  Cuba 11,900 2016 est.
104  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11,600 2017 est.
105  Namibia 11,500 2017 est.
106  Bosnia and Herzegovina 11,400 2017 est.
107  Ecuador 11,200 2017 est.
108  Georgia 10,600 2017 est.
 Kosovo 10,400 2017 est.
109  Fiji 9,900 2017 est.
110  Eswatini 9,900 2017 est.
111  Paraguay 9,800 2017 est.
112  Libya 9,800 2017 est.
113  Jamaica 9,200 2017 est.
114  Armenia 9,100 2017 est.
115  El Salvador 8,900 2017 est.
116  Ukraine 8,700 2017 est.
117  Bhutan 8,700 2017 est.
118  Morocco 8,600 2017 est.
 Montserrat 8,500 2006 est.
119  Guyana 8,300 2017 est.
120  Belize 8,300 2017 est.
121  Guatemala 8,200 2017 est.
122  Philippines 8,200 2017 est.
 Saint Helena, Ascension
and Tristan da Cunha
7,800 2010 est.
123  Bolivia 7,500 2017 est.
124  Laos 7,400 2017 est.
125  India 7,200 2017 est.
126  Uzbekistan 7,000 2017 est.
127  Vietnam 6,900 2017 est.
128  Cape Verde 6,900 2017 est.
129  Angola 6,800 2017 est.
130  Congo, Republic of the 6,700 2017 est.
131  Myanmar 6,300 2017 est.
132  Nigeria 5,900 2017 est.
133  Nicaragua 5,800 2015 est.
 Niue 5,800 2003 est.
134  Moldova 5,700 2017 est.
135  Samoa 5,700 2017 est.
136  Tonga 5,600 2017 est.
137  Honduras 5,500 2017 est.
138  Pakistan 5,400 2017 est.
139  Timor-Leste 5,000 2017 est.
140  Ghana 4,600 2017 est.
141  Sudan 4,600 2017 est.
142  Mauritania 4,500 2017 est.
 Palestine, State of 4,300 2014 est.
143  Bangladesh 4,200 2017 est.
144  Cambodia 4,000 2017 est.
145  Zambia 4,000 2017 est.
146  Lesotho 3,900 2017 est.
147  Côte d'Ivoire 3,900 2017 est.
148  Tuvalu 3,800 2017 est.
149  Papua New Guinea 3,800 2017 est.
 Wallis and Futuna 3,800 2004 est.
150  Kyrgyzstan 3,700 2017 est.
151  Djibouti 3,600 2017 est.
152  Kenya 3,500 2017 est.
153  Cameroon 3,400 2017 est.
154  Marshall Islands 3,400 2017 est.
155  Micronesia, Federated States of 3,400 2017 est.
156  Tanzania 3,300 2017 est.
157  São Tomé and Príncipe 3,200 2017 est.
158  Tajikistan 3,100 2017 est.
159  Syria 2,900 2015 est.
160  Vanuatu 2,800 2017 est.
161    Nepal 2,700 2017 est.
162  Senegal 2,700 2017 est.
 Western Sahara 2,500 2007 est.
163  Chad 2,400 2017 est.
164  Uganda 2,400 2017 est.
165  Zimbabwe 2,300 2017 est.
166  Yemen 2,300 2017 est.
167  Mali 2,200 2017 est.
168  Benin 2,200 2017 est.
169  Rwanda 2,100 2017 est.
170  Ethiopia 2,100 2017 est.
171  Solomon Islands 2,100 2017 est.
172  Guinea 2,000 2017 est.
173  Burkina Faso 1,900 2017 est.
174  Kiribati 1,900 2017 est.
175  Afghanistan 1,900 2017 est.
176  Sierra Leone 1,800 2017 est.
177  Guinea-Bissau 1,800 2017 est.
178  Haiti 1,800 2017 est.
179  Korea, North 1,700 2015 est.
180  Gambia, The 1,700 2017 est.
181  Togo 1,600 2017 est.
182  Madagascar 1,600 2017 est.
183  Comoros 1,600 2017 est.
184  South Sudan 1,500 2017 est.
185  Eritrea 1,400 2017 est.
186  Mozambique 1,300 2017 est.
187  Niger 1,200 2017 est.
188  Malawi 1,200 2017 est.
 Tokelau 1,000 1993 est.
189  Liberia 900 2017 est.
190  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 800 2017 est.
191  Burundi 800 2017 est.
192  Central African Republic 700 2017 est.
193  Somalia N/A 2017 est.

Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens

There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in Oil & Gas reserves tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens, or corporate tax havens, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures.[8] It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists).[9] An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global FDI flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions.[10]

A stunning $12 trillion—almost 40 percent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 percent of the world’s investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.

— "Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018[10]

In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics), also known as BEPS actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called Modified gross national income (or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens.

Ireland has, more or less, stopped using GDP to measure its own economy. And on current trends [because Irish GDP is distorting EU-28 aggregate data], the eurozone taken as a whole may need to consider something similar.

— Brad Setser, Council on Foreign Relations, "Ireland exports its Leprechaun", 25 April 2018[11]

The statistical distortions created by the impact on the Irish National Accounts of the global assets and activities of a handful of large multinational corporations have now become so large as to make a mockery of conventional uses of Irish GDP.

— Patrick Honohan, ex-Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland, 13 July 2016[12]

A list of the top 15 GDP-per-capita countries from 2016-2017, contains most of the major global tax havens (see GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy for more detail):

International Monetary Fund (2017) World Bank (2016)[5][6]
Rank Country/Territory Type
1  Qatar Oil & Gas
 Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
2  Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3  Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4  Brunei Oil & Gas
5  Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
6  Norway Oil & Gas
7  Kuwait Oil & Gas
8  United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
9   Switzerland Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
 Hong Kong Top 10 Tax Haven (Sink OFC)
10  San Marino Tax haven (Sink OFC)
11  United States 59,495
12  Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
13  Netherlands Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
14  Iceland 52,150
15  Bahrain Oil & Gas
Rank Country/Territory Type
1  Qatar Oil & Gas
2  Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
 Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3  Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4  Brunei Oil & Gas
5  United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
6  Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
7   Switzerland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
8  Norway Oil & Gas
 Hong Kong Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
9  United States 57,467
10  Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
11  Iceland 51,399
12  Netherlands Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
13  Austria 50,078
14  Denmark 49,496
15  Sweden 49,175

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Calculated by dividing total world GDP according to IMF by total world population based on 2017 projection published by the United Nations.

References

  1. ^ "World GDP – per capita (PPP) – Economy". www.indexmundi.com.
  2. ^ "Sarkozy attacks focus on economic growth (French president urges more emphasis on quality of life)", The Guardian, 14-09-2009.
  3. ^ "Alternative progress indicators to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a means towards sustainable development"
  4. ^ World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019, International Monetary Fund. Database updated in April 2019. Accessed on 12 April 2019.
  5. ^ a b PPP (current international $)", World Development Indicators database, World Bank. Database updated on 1 July 2017. Accessed on 2 July 2017.
  6. ^ a b "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  7. ^ GDP – per capita (PPP), The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 7 March 2014.
  8. ^ "How tax havens turn economic statistics into nonsense". Quartz. 11 June 2018.
  9. ^ Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hines, James R., Jr. (2009). "Which Countries Become Tax Havens?" (PDF). Journal of Public Economics. 93 (9–10): 1058–1068. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.07.005. The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries which have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan).
  10. ^ a b "Piercing the Veil, FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT, JUNE 2018, VOL. 55, NO. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
  11. ^ "Ireland Exports its Leprechaun". Council on Foreign Relations. 11 May 2018.
  12. ^ "The Irish National Accounts: Towards some do's and don'ts". irisheconomy.ie. 13 July 2016.